Fair and Petting Zoo Safety

A resource for fair and petty zoo legal cases and outbreak prevention, sponsored by Marler Clark

Known Cases of Zoonotic Pathogen Outbreaks Associated with State and County Fairs, Petting Zoos, and Community Activities Involving Human-Animal Contact

  • 2015 Outbreak of E. coli O157 cluster, Red River Valley Fair-North Dakota

    In July 2015 the North Dakota Department of Health investigated an outbreak of E. coli O157 in persons who attended the Red River Valley Fair held in West Fargo, North Dakota. The fair was held from July 7 through July 12. Five cases were identified. One of the cases developed Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome. One hundred seventeen people completed the online survey. Sixty two (52%) reported diarrheal illness after attending the fair. Epidemiological analysis of survey data did not...

  • 2015 E. coli O157 Outbreak at Milk Makers Fest, Washington

    In April 2015 local and state public health officials investigated an outbreak of E. coli O157 that occurred among people who attended the Milk Makers Fest held at the Northwest Washington Fairground in Lynden, Washington. The event was held between April 21 and April 23. Illnesses occurred among attendees as well as persons who helped with the event. Secondary cases were reported. More than 1,000 primary school children from all school districts in Whatcom County attended the...

  • 2014 Outbreak of Shiga Toxin E. coli (STEC) at State Fairgrounds, Oklahoma

    In April 2014 the Oklahoma State Department of Health investigated a spike of Shiga toxin E. coli (STEC) among at least a dozen people who had attended agricultural events around the state. One group of patients attended the Oklahoma Youth Expo at the State Fairgrounds. As of April 3, 2014 investigators had not identified a source.

  • 2014 E. coli O157 and Zerebko Zoo Tran Traveling Petting Zoo, Minnesota

    In July, an outbreak of E. coli O157 infections associated with animal contact at a petting zoo that had traveled to three county fairs and one community festival occurred. Fifteen cases (14 culture-con rmed) were identi ed, and 2 cases developed HUS. E. coli O157 with the same PFGE subtype as the human isolates was identi ed in samples collected from a goat, alpaca pen, and an animal trailer

  • 2013 Outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing E.coli at fair-like agricultural show in Brisbane, Australia.

    At least 12 people – primarily children – have likely fallen ill after visiting a petting zoo at a fair in Brisbane, Australia.
    Four people, including three girls between the ages of six and 13, have tested positive for Shiga toxin-producing E. coli in connection with the Ekka, an annual fair-like agricultural show in Queensland.

  • 2013 Outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 at a Fall Festival Petting Zoo. Minnesota

    In October, an outbreak of E. coli O157 infections due to animal contact at a Fall Festival petting zoo occurred. Two culture-confirmed cases were identified, and 1 developed HUS. E. coli O157 with the same PFGE subtype as the human isolates was isolated from calf and goat feces, and environmental samples.

  • 2013 E .coli O157 Infections at Pumpkin Patch Petting Zoo.  Minnesota

    In October 2013 three Minnesota children became ill with E. coli O157 infections after contact with animals at Dehn’s Pumpkins located in Dayton, Minnesota. One child was hospitalized and developed hemolytic uremic syndrome. The children visited the farm on October 12 or October 13 and became ill on October 16 or 18. All three had contact with cattle and/or goats at Dehn’s. All three were infected with an indistinguishable strain of E. coli O157:H7 as determined by PFGE.

  • 2013 Cryptosporidiosis outbreak associated with Breakfast on the Farm.  Minnesota

    One outbreak associated with “Breakfast on a Farm” occurred, accounting for 2 primary cases and 1 secondary case, all laboratory-confirmed.

  • 2012 Willow Grove Pumpkin Patch E. coli Outbreak

    In October of 2012, Cowlitz County Health and Services announced that 4 children had become ill with E. coli O157:H7 infections after visiting the Willow Grove Gardens Pumpkin Patch and petting zoo.  One of the children was hospitalized for several days.  The suspected source of the E. coli outbreak was the petting zoo at the pumpkin patch.

  • 2012 Petting Zoo at Bench Street Animal Shelter.  Minnesota

    An outbreak of Cryptosporidiosis was associated with attending a petting zoo on March 31. The Humane Society of Goodhue County held a one day petting zoo and photo shoot at it shelter on Bench Street, Red Wing, Minnesota. Two people subsequently were confirmed to be infected with Cryptosporidium and another thirteen were ill.

  • 2012 Cleveland County Fair E. coli Outbreak

    North Carolina public health officials investigated an E. coli O157:H7 outbreak associated with attendance at the Cleveland County Fair, which ran from September 27 to October 7, 2012.  At least 106 people became ill with E. coli infections after either visiting the fair of coming into direct contact with a person who had attended the fair. 

    As of October 29, 2012, the North Carolina Department of Human Services reported that 65 children and 41 adults had become ill with E....

  • 2012 Cantref Adventure Farm E. coli Outbreak

    Two children who visited the Cantref Adventure Farm in Brecon, Wales became ill with E. coli O157:H7 infections in September, 2012.  Three family members of the infected children also became ill with E. coli infections.

    Public Health Wales advised the farm to stop direct contact between animals and the public immediately after the E. coli outbreak.

  • 2011 Snohomish County Petting Zoo

    At least 6 people who visited the Forest Park Petting Zoo in Everett, Washington, in June 2011 became ill with E. coli O157:H7 infections.  The Snohomish County Health Department investigated the E. coli outbreak and determined that there was a “clear association between disease and being in the open animal interaction area of the forest Park Animal Farm.”  Investigators determined that direct interaction with calves, and indirect exposure to contaminated surfaces were both...

  • 2011 Outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 linked with animal contact at a county fair.  Minnesota

    An outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 infec- tions associated with animal contact at a county fair occurred in August; both cases reported contact with goats. Two culture-confirmed cases with the same PFGE subtype were identified. Minnesota Department of Health Disease Control Newsletter Volume 39:1 DCN 39;1 2012 page 7 http://www.health.state.mn.us/divs/idepc/newsletters/dcn/sum11/sum11.pdf

  • 2011 North Carolina State Fair E. coli Outbreak

    At least 27 North Carolina residents became ill with E. coli O157:H7 infections after visiting the N.C. State Fair in October 2011.  Residents of 8 North Carolina counties were part of the outbreak.

    Investigators from the N.C. Division of Public Health and the N.C. Department of Agriculture and consumer Services announced that the Kelley Building, which is a permanent structure on the fairgrounds, was the most likely source of the E. coli outbreak.  Sheep, goats and pigs were...

  • 2011 Non-O157:STEC outbreak linked to unpasteurized apple cider, calf in petting zoo. Minnesota

    In 2011, an outbreak caused in party by non-O157 STEC was identified among individuals who visited an apple orchard in October. In total, 14 cases were identified, including 5 laboratoryconfirmed E. coli O111:NM cases and 3 laboratory-confirmed Cryptosporidium parvum cases. Consuming samples of unpasteurized apple cider from a pressing demonstration was associated with illness. E. coli O111:NM was isolated from a calf at the orchard’s petting zoo.

  • 2011 English Animal Farm Outbreak

    Cruckley Animal Farm in Foston-on-the-Wolds, England is closing its gates permanently following an outbreak of E. coli O157:H7.  The family-run farm was linked to at least six cases of the life-threatening infection as of August 2011.  The owners, John and Sue Johnston, expressed sorrow at the illness and stated that “the health and safety of our visitors has always been our top priority,” thus with the news the farm was the likely source of illnesses, they decided to close.  The...

  • 2010 County Fair Ends With Serious Illness for Some Participants. Indiana

    The investigation indicated that an outbreak of lower gastrointestinal intestinal (GI) illness occurred among persons that had some association with the county fair. The likely source of infection for the initial cases was exposure to animal feces. It was not possible to identify which animal or animals were the source of infection because more than one animal barn was visited by those initially infected. It is possible that mild secondary cases occurred in one family. Lab test...

  • 2009 Utah Rodeos Outbreak

    Utah state and local health officials and the CDC noted a cluster of E. coli O157:H7 cases in the summer of 2009.  The illnesses were associated with attendance to rodeos, but not all the same one.  The vast majority of the 14 cases (93%) had food histories containing ground beef, unsurprising for rodeo visitors. 

    However, a traceback on the meat products provided at the rodeos found no contamination.  Environmental samples gathered at the rodeo sites and from the animals did...

  • 2009 Two cases of E. coli O157:H7 associated with visit to orchard and petting zoo.  Minnesota

    In October, 2 cases of E. coli O157:H7 infec­tion with the same PFGE subtype occurred in Minnesota residents that had visited an orchard and petting zoo in Scott County. Both cases developed HUS; neither died. Indirect or direct contact with the animals or their manure was the source of the infections.

  • 2009 Godstone Park Farm and Plan Barn E. coli Outbreak in Surrey, England

    A final report of the Outbreak Control Committee of the Surrey and Sussex Health Protection Unit describes an outbreak of E. coli O157 (VTEC O157 PT21/28) occurring in August and September 2009.  This was the largest documented outbreak of VTEC O157 associated with farms in the UK.  Individuals became infected either through direct or indirect contact with farm livestock.  Outbreak strains were recovered from humans visiting the farm, animals housed in the petting barns, and...

  • 2009 “Feed the Animals” Exhibit E. coli outbreak at the Western Stock Show

    In January 2009, the Communicable Disease and Consumer Protection Divisions of the Colorado Department of Public Health noticed an increase is in the number of laboratory confirmed cases of E. coli O157.  Thirty cases were identified—including nine hospitalizations and 2 cases of HUS.  All the children had visited the National Western Stock Show in Denver, Colorado.  A case-control study found the risk of E. coli infection was associated with touching animals in the “Kids Zone”...

  • 2009 Two Outbreaks of Diarrhea in Nurseries after Farm Visits. Norway

    During a 2009 nationwide outbreak of sorbitolfermenting Escherichia coli O157 in Norway, the Norwegian Institute of Public Health was notified of diarrhoea outbreaks in two nurseries. A link to the nationwide outbreak was suspected and investigated, including retrospective cohort studies. Both nurseries had recently visited farms. Faecal specimens were obtained from symptomatic children as well as from the farm animals and tested for Campylobacter, Salmonella, Yersinia, Shigella...

  • 2007 Petting Zoo E. coli O157:H7 outbreak in Pinellas County, FL

    In May and June 2007, seven Florida children were infected with E. coli O157:H7.  Six of the children had visited a Day Camp petting zoo, and the seventh was a sibling.  Two of the children were hospitalized, all seven recovered.  The petting zoo was closed on the recommendation of the health department.  The CDC’s report on the incident was published in its publication, the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR).

  • 2007 E.coli O157:H7 linked to showing cattle or visiting cattle barn at MN State Fair.  Minnesota

    Six Minnesota cases and one Wisconsin case with the same or closely-related PFGE subtype of E. coli O157:H7, and an additional Minnesota case of Shiga-toxin producing E. coli that was not culture-confirmed, attended the Minnesota State Fair in August. All but one of the cases showed cattle or visited the cattle barn.

  • 2005 Florida State Fair, Central Florida Fair, and Florida Strawberry Festival E. coli Outbreak

    The AgVenture Farms E. coli O157:H7 outbreak was first recognized after two separate HUS case reports were reported to the Florida Department of Health in mid-March.  The two cases (a 5-yr-old girl and a 7-yr-old boy) both reported having visited a fair with a petting zoo (AgVenture) a few days prior to becoming ill. The two children visited the same fair and did not have any other common risk factors.

    A total of 22 confirmed, 45 suspect and 6 secondary cases from 20 Florida...

  • 2005 Campylobacteriosis Outbreak Associated with a Camping Trip to a Farm

    In June 2005, King County Public Health was notified that a several children on a school trip had been ill with diarrhea, abdominal pain, and fever following the trip. Campylobacter was isolated from the stool of the ill individual, and later in the week, two more cases of campylobacteriosis were reported in persons who had been on the same camping trip, held at a private farm.

    Ultimately, fifty percent, or 14 of 28 people on the trip experienced symptoms of campylobacteriosis...

  • 2005 Campylobacter jejuni Outbreak Associated with a Dairy Farm, Comanche County, Oklahoma

    On April 19, 2005, the OSDH-CDD received a report regarding three children currently hospitalized with campylobacteriosis in Comanche County. All were members of a Cub Scout troop who had attended a field trip on April 11 to a dairy and goat farm. Further investigation revealed ten out of the eleven persons attending the field trip became ill. Six of the attendees were males aged 6 to 7 years. Two adult males and three adult females also attended. On April 12, attendees started...

  • 2005 Campylobacter jejuni Outbreak Associated with a Dairy Farm, Comanche County, Oklahoma

    2005 Campylobacter jejuni Outbreak Associated with a Dairy Farm, Comanche County, Oklahoma

  • 2005 Big Fresno Fair Petting Zoo E. coli Outbreak

    At least six children were infected with E. coli O157:H7 - one gravely - visiting the petting zoo at the 2005 Big Fresno Fair.  Angela Malos was two years old at the time of her visit to the petting zoo.  She developed HUS (hemolytic uremic syndrome) and was hospitalized for months.  Her kidneys were severely damaged and a series of strokes left her with impaired movement and vision.  Her case settled in 2010 for 2.2 million dollars. 

  • 2004, 2005 Petting Zoos linked E.coli O157:H7 Outbreaks - North Carolina, Florida, and Arizona

    During 2004—2005, three outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections occurred among agricultural fair, festival, and petting zoo visitors in North Carolina, Florida, and Arizona. One hundred eight cases, including 15 cases of hemolytic uremic syndrome* (HUS), were reported in the North Carolina outbreak; 63 cases, including seven HUS cases, were reported in the Florida outbreak; and two cases were reported in Arizona. No fatalities occurred. Illnesses primarily affected...

  • 2004 E. coli Outbreak Associated with the North Carolina State Fair in Raleigh

    In late October 2004 the North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services (NCDHHS) conducted an E. coli O157:H7 outbreak investigation among attendees at the 2004 State Fair. 108 cases were identified with 15 who experienced HUS. The majority of cases occurred in children. This is one of the largest outbreaks attributed to a petting zoo.  Illness was associated with animal contact and hand-to-mouth activities.  One interesting finding was that the use of alcohol-based hand...

  • 2003 Petting zoo-associated Escherichia coli O157:H7. British Columbia

    Petting zoo-associated Escherichia coli 0157:h7—secondary transmission, asymptomatic infection, and prolonged shedding in the classroom.  DAVID, S. T.  et al. Petting zoo-associated Escherichia coli 0157:h7—secondary transmission, asymptomatic infection, and prolonged shedding in the classroom. Can Commun Dis Rep, v. 30, n. 20, p. 173-80, Oct 2004. ISSN 1188-4169. Disponível em: <

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15536809 >.

  • 2003 Fort Bend County Fair E. coli Outbreak - Rosenberg, Texas

    In 2003, 25 people (fair visitors and animal exhibitors) became ill with hemolytic uremic syndrome and one case of a related disease, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. All seven laboratory-confirmed cases had an indistinguishable PFGE pattern which matched 10 isolates obtained from environmental samples taken from animal housing areas.  Environmental samples...

  • 2003 Five cases of E. coli O157:H7 associated with attendance at a county fair. Minnesota

    The outbreak was associated with attendance at a county fair and was likely transmitted by direct or indirect contact with animals. There were five confirmed cases among Minnesota residents and there was one confirmed case in a Nevada resident. One of the Minnesota cases developed HUS and was hospitalized for 36 days.

  • 2002 Wyandot County, Ohio, Fair E. coli Outbreak

    The Ohio Wyandot County Health Department received a report of an E. coli O157 outbreak in September, 2001 (CDC memorandum, February, 2002). A total of 92 cases were identified, including 27 laboratory-confirmed E. coli O157 infections. Two cases were diagnosed with hemolytic uremic syndrome. Eighty-eight cases reported attending Wyandot County Fair before becoming ill. The source of the outbreak was not fully identified; however, the most likely source was believed to be contact...

  • 2002 Lane County, Oregon, Fair E. coli Outbreak

    The Oregon Department of Human Services (Oregon, 2002) initially documented a patient with bloody diarrhea, who attended the Lane County Fair held during August, 2002. Epidemiologists identified 82 ill persons, 22 who were hospitalized, and 12 with HUS.  This is the largest E. coli O157:H7 outbreak recorded in Oregon.  Although not confirmed, health officials postulated that possible exposures leading to the outbreak occurred at animal enclosures, including the cattle tent, horse...

  • 2002 E. coli Outbreak at a Petting Zoo in Zutphen, The Netherlands

    Heuvelink et al (2002) reported that a young child developed a Shiga toxin 2 producing strain of Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 infection after visiting a petting zoo in Zutphen, The Netherlands.  The STEC strains were isolated from the fecal samples from goats and sheep on the farm and were indistinguishable from the human patient isolate.

  • 2001 Ozaukee County, Wisconsin, Fair E. coli Outbreak

    The Ozaukee County Public Health Department and Wisconsin Department of Health and Family Services (2001) investigated an outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 associated with animals at the Ozaukee County Fair in August, 2001. A total of 59 E. coli O157:H7 cases were identified in this outbreak, with 25 laboratory confirmed cases (25 “primary cases” and 34 probable cases). Bacteriological testing of water at the Ozaukee County fairgrounds and the Fireman’s park did not indicate...

  • 2001 Outbreak of cryptosporidiosis associated with an animal nursery.  Tasmania, Australia

    ASHBOLT, R. H.  et al. An outbreak of cryptosporidiosis associated with an animal nursery at a regional fair. Commun Dis Intell Q Rep, v. 27, n. 2, p. 244-9,  2003. ISSN 1447-4514. Disponível em: <

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12926737 >.

  • 2001 Lorain County, Ohio, Fair E. coli Outbreak

    The Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Services (CDC memorandum, February, 2002) reported that 23 cases of E. coli O157:H7 infection were associated with the attendance at the Lorain County Fairgrounds in September, 2001. Additional cases were identified as likely due to secondary transmission from attendees at the fairgrounds. An investigation associated illness with environmental contamination at the Cow Palace. This included attending a dance in the...

  • 2001 E. coli Outbreak at a Petting Zoo in Worcester, Pennsylvania

    An article published by WebMD Medical News on April 23, 2001 (Bloomquist, 2001), reported an outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 among visitors to the Merrymead Farm petting zoo in Worcester, Pennsylvania. In all, 16 children who had visited the zoo contracted E .coli, and it was suspected that another 45 people became ill from the bacteria.  The report indicated that one week after visiting the zoo, one of the children came down with violent stomach cramps and was hospitalized.  A few...

  • 2000 Snohomish County, Washington, Petting Zoo E. coli Outbreak

    The Snohomish Health District, Communicable Disease Department (June, 2000) reported five cases of bacterial diarrhea caused by E. coli O157:H7 in children in Snohomish County in May 2000. Three of the children visited a petting zoo several days before they became sick. The fourth child did not visit the petting zoo, but lived on another farm where cattle were raised. An ensuing investigation of the farm by Snohomish Health District (SHD) and by the Washington Department of...

  • 2000 Medina County, Ohio, Fair E. coli Outbreak

    A cluster of E. coli O157:H7 isolates was observed in Medina County, Ohio, in August of 2000. In the case-control investigation, 43 culture confirmed E. coli O157:H7 cases were identified. The environmental investigation suggested that contamination of a section of the water distribution system supplying various vendors was the likely exposure. Water samples collected for this study did not indicate any coliform bacteria. But, a subsequent Halloween event arranged on the same...

  • 2000 E. coli Outbreak at a Dairy Farm

    Crump et al (2002) discussed an outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 among visitors to a dairy farm in Pennsylvania in September, 2000. A case control study among the visitors was conducted to identify the risk factors of infection, along with a household survey to determine the rates of diarrheal illness. The total number of confirmed or suspected E. coli O157:H7 cases was 51. The median age among the patients was four. Eight of the cases developed hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). The...

  • 2000 Cryptosporidiosis Outbreak at a Farm in Wellington, New Zealand

    An outbreak of Cryptosporidiosis was linked to a two-day farm educational event in the Wellington region of New Zealand. Twenty-three cases were laboratory-confirmed. The route of infection was most likely from an infected animal. (Stefanogiannis et al, 2001).

  • 1999 E. coli Outbreak at an Agricultural Fair in Ontario, Canada

    Warshawsky et al (2002) investigated an outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 associated with a large agricultural fair which occurred between September 10 and September 19, 1999, in Ontario, Canada. The 7 cases of E. coli O157:H7 were associated with animal contact at the agricultural pavilion of the regional fair. Subtyping revealed that five of the seven cases were an uncommon E. coli O157:H7 strain (PT 27) while the remaining two were a more common strain (E. coli O157:H7 PT 14).  The...

  • 1999 E. coli Outbreak at a Social Event in a Cow Pasture in Petersburg, Illinois

    An outbreak of E. coli bacteria was reported in Petersburg, Illinois, in 1999 (Nando Times, 1999). The outbreak took place among 1,800 people who attended a party called “Cornstalk” held in a cow pasture.  State health officials reported that 202 individuals became ill, and that 20 were hospitalized. However, none of the reported illnesses were considered serious.  The source of contamination was not identified.

  • 1999 E. coli Outbreak at a Fair in North Wales, London

    Payne et al (2003) reported an outbreak of Vero toxin (Shiga toxin) producing E. coli O157:H7 (VTEC O157:H7) causing gastroenteritis among people visiting an open farm in North Wales, London in June 1999.  A case-control study identified an association between attendance on the second day of the festival, eating ice cream or cotton candy and contact with cows or goats and illness.  Investigators suggested that foods on open farms should only be eaten in the dedicated clean areas,...

  • 1998 Wisconsin County Fair Swine Flu Case

    In September 1988, a woman was fatally infected with swine influenza virus in Wisconsin.  The victim had attended a county fair and visited the display area of the pig barn. Veterinarians at the fair indicated that pigs in the display area had illnesses consistent with swine influenza.  (Wells et al., 1991)  The case likely acquired influenza infection through direct transmission from pigs at the fair (see additional information about swine influenza and County Fairs).

  • 1998 Two E. coli O157:H7 cases linked to county fair; both children developed HUS. Minnesota

    The outbreak involved two cases who had attended a county fair; both children developed HUS. The specific source of infection for these two cases was not determined.
    Minnesota Department of Health Disease Control Newsletter page 17 http://www.health.state.mn.us/divs/idepc/newsletters/dcn/sum98/9907dcn.pdf

  • 1998 Puyallup, Washington Fair E. coli Outbreak

    An outbreak of hemorrhagic colitis due to E. coli O157:H7 was identified among visitors to the Puyallup Fair in Puyallup, Washington, during September of 1998 (CDC Memorandum, March 1999). Two children were initially confirmed as being ill from E. coli O157:H7.  The investigation identified three confirmed and five probable cases of E. coli O157:H7 illness.  Investigators suspected illness was due to consumption of contaminated hamburgers. However, animal contact also occurred...

  • 1998 E. coli Outbreak at an Agricultural Fair in British Columbia, Canada

    The British Columbia Center for Disease Control observed a cluster of E. coli O157:H7 infections.  Subsequent molecular subtyping identified nine isolates with an indistinguishable genotype pattern.  Three individuals were hospitalized, though none developed hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS).  Seven of the nine had an onset of illness within ten days of visiting a large agricultural fair.  Despite in-depth interviews, no common source of infection could be identified.

  • 1997 Minnesota Zoo Cryptosporidiosis Outbreak

    In July 1997, the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) reported an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis among children who visited the Minnesota Zoo (MMWR Weekly, October, 1998). A total of 369 cases were reported, of which 73 had Cryptosporidium identified from stool samples.  The onset of illness (i.e. vomiting or diarrhea) occurred 3 to 15 days after exposure to the contaminated zoo fountain. 

  • 1997 E. coli Outbreak at Farms in Cornwall and West Devon, United Kingdom

    Milne et al (1999) investigated an E. coli O157:H7 outbreak associated with a farm in the United Kingdom during June and July, 1997. A Vero cytotoxin producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection was observed in three children, one who lived on an open farm and two who visited the farm during school parties. Two of the three children developed HUS: one with severe neurological impairment.  Isolate patterns from the three children and environmental samples were indistinguishable by...

  • 1995 Cryptosporidiosis Outbreak at a Farm in Wales, United Kingdom

    In April 1995, an outbreak of Cryptosporidiosis was reported among 43 children and four staff who visited a rural farm (Evans and Gardner, 1996). The likely source of infection was contact with the calves.

  • 1995 Cryptosporidiosis Outbreak at a Farm in Dublin, Ireland

    Sayers et al (1996) reported a Cryptosporidium outbreak during the summer of 1995, involving 13 children. The children had participated in a summer project and visited an open farm in Dublin, Ireland. The investigators concluded that the outbreak was associated with playing in the sand on a picnic area beside the stream where animals had access. This outbreak emphasizes the potential risk associated with children visiting open farms.

  • 1994 E. coli Outbreak at a Farm Visitor Center, Leicestershire, United Kingdom

    Shukla et al (1995) investigated an outbreak of seven cases of E. coli O157:H7 infection associated with a visit to a farm in Leicestershire, United Kingdom, during the summer of 1994.  The ensuing investigation found that the common factor linking all the cases was a visit to a farm visitor center in the three weeks before the onset of the illnesses. The microbiologic data supported this link, as the strains of E. coli O157:H7 isolated from nine animals on the farm were...

  • 1993 Cryptosporidiiosis cases associated with farm open weekend. England

    54 cases were associated with farm visits, 48 of whom had been to a farm open weekend in March. Eight cases were admitted to hospital.
    DAWSON, A.  et al. Farm visits and zoonoses. Commun Dis Rep CDR Rev, v. 5, n. 6, p. R81-6, May 1995. ISSN 1350-9349. Disponível em:

    <

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7606275 >

  • 1993 Cryptosporidiosis outbreak linked to viisiting a farm during lambing.  Bedfordshire, England

    In Bedfordshire 33 cases were reported in people who had visited a farm during lambing, and nine were admitted to hospital. 
    DAWSON, A.  et al. Farm visits and zoonoses. Commun Dis Rep CDR Rev, v. 5, n. 6, p. R81-6, May 1995. ISSN 1350-9349. Disponível em:

    <

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7606275 >

  • 1992 Three outbreaks associated with Open Farm visits.  England

    Three separate incidents of cryptosporidiosis were reported between March and May, all apparently associated with visits to a single farm in Derbyshire by schoolchildren and other members of the public; at least 10 children had diarrhoea (PHLS Communicable Disease Centre (CDSC), unpublished data).  DAWSON, A.  et al. Farm visits and zoonoses. Commun Dis Rep CDR Rev, v. 5, n. 6, p. R81-6, May 1995. ISSN 1350-9349. Disponível em: <

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7606275 >

  • 1990 Cryptosporidiosis outbreak associated with educational visit to dairy farm.  England

    1990 Eleven children aged 7 to 8 years from one school class developed diarrhoea and vomiting after an educational visit to a dairy farm.  SHIELD, J.  et al. Cryptosporidiosis—an educational experience. J Infect, v. 21, n. 3, p. 297-301, Nov 1990. ISSN 0163-4453. Disponível em: <

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2273276 >.